Missing icons and symbols on Mac OS X

I had some strange effects on my new MacBook Pro (Retina, 2013). After waking up from hibernation, icons from at least Finder's and Mail's toolbar were missing, symbols from Finder's siderbar were missing, icons in the menu bar had disappered or were crippled, and some icons in the dock had been replaced by a colorful square. Ultimate solution to this was to re-enable the dynamic_pager (swap memory). Below are all the steps I took in chronological order:

  1. Restarted my MBP
  2. Shut down and power cycled it
  3. Rebooted into safe mode (holding Shift key during power cycle or restart): All icons and symbols reappeared until my MBP was put into hibernation again
  4. Repaired disk permissions of my Macintosh partition and verified the disk (Applications -> Utilities -> Disk Utility)
  5. Rebooted into recovery system (holding Alt key during power cycle or restart), repaired disk permissions of my Macintosh partition and verified the disk
  6. Installed memtest for Mac OS X, rebooted into single user mode (holding Command+S during boot), ran memtest all 2 which took more than 2 hours, but didn't find any memory erros (phew!)
  7. Discovered that the dynamic_pager process wasn't running (executed ps ax | grep dynamic_pager in a terminal), and enabled it:
    sudo launchctl load -wF /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.dynamic_pager.plist
  8. Rebooted into recovery system again, opened a terminal (from the menu bar Utilites -> Terminal), and removed all cached files, the hibernation ram image (sleepimage), and any swapfiles (double check what you type and in which folder you execute rm -r *!):
    # cd /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD/Library/Caches
    # rm -r *
    # cd /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD/System/Library/Caches
    # rm -r *
    # cd /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD/Users/YOUR_USERNAME/Library/Caches
    # rm -r *
    # cd /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD/private/var/vm
    # rm sleepimage
    # rm swapfile?
  9. Problem solved!